Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814)
" Of the 23 million acres (93,000 km˛) Jackson forced the Creeks to cede,
1.9 million acres (7,700 km˛) was claimed by the Cherokee Nation who had
allied with the United States. After becoming President, Jackson took the
land ceded to his former allies, the Cherokees, together with other Cherokee
lands in his removal of the Cherokees to the Oklahoma Territory. Chief
Junaluska, the Cherokee Chief who saved the life of Jackson in Battle and
who led 500 Cherokees in support of Jackson at Horseshoe Bend, stated that
"If I had known that Jackson would drive us from our homes, I would have
killed him at Horseshoe".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Creek War battle. For the 1832 Black Hawk War
battle of the same name, see Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1832).
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Part of the Creek War
Note: Lt. Cato West
, and nephews including Gadi,
Levi, Berry, William fought in this conflict led by General Andrew Jackson
against the Red Stick Creeks in Alabama. Without Indian allies against
Tecumseh, the Americans might have lost the battle, and the Creeks might
have created a pan Indian area between the eastern colonies and western
settlements such as New Orleans and Natchez.
Diorama of the battle from the Horseshoe Bend Museum
Date March 27, 1814
Location near Dadeville, Alabama
Result Decisive U.S./Native American victory
Red Stick Creek United States
Menawa Andrew Jackson
~1,000 warriors American: ~2,000 infantry,
Native American: ~600 warriors
Casualties and losses
unknown wounded American:
Burnt Corn - Fort Mims – Tallushatchee – Talladega – Holy Ground – Emuckfaw
and Enotachopo Creek – Horseshoe Bend
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (also known as Tohopeka, Cholocco Litabixbee or
The Horseshoe), was fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On
March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew
Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired
by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
4 In fiction
7 External links
The battle is considered part of the War of 1812. The Creeks went to war at
the urging of Tecumseh, the leading ally of the British, who was trying to
build a pan-Indian resistance to American expansion. The British planned to
create a large "neutral" Indian state that would be a buffer to the
Americans. Horseshoe Bend was the major battle of the Creek War, in which
Andrew Jackson sought to "clear" Alabama for American settlement. General
Jackson was in command of an army of West Tennessee militia, which he had
turned into a well-trained fighting force. To add to these militia units was
the 39th United States Infantry and about 600 Cherokee, Choctaw and Lower
Creeks fighting against the Red Stick Creek Indians. After leaving Fort
Williams in the spring of 1814, Jackson's army cut its way through the
forest to within 6 miles (10 km) of Chief Menawa's Red Stick camp near a
bend in the Tallapoosa River, called "Horseshoe Bend," in central Alabama,
12 miles (19 km) east of what is now Alexander City. Jackson sent General
John Coffee with the mounted infantry and the Indian allies south across the
river to surround the Red Sticks camp, while Jackson stayed with the rest of
the 2,000 infantry north of the camp.
Battle positions: On March 27 at 10:30 a.m., Jackson began an
artillery barrage which consisted of 2 cannons firing for about two hours.
Little damage was caused to the Red Sticks or their fortifications. Coffee's
Cherokees and cavalry began crossing the river and fought the Red Sticks on
their rear. Jackson then ordered a bayonet charge. The infantry charged the
breastworks surrounding the camp and caught the Red Sticks in a cross fire.
Sam Houston (the future governor of Tennessee and Texas, as well as the
President of the Republic of Texas) served as a third lieutenant in
Jackson's army. Houston was one of the first to make it over the log
barricade alive and received a wound from a Creek arrow that troubled him
the rest of his life.
The battle raged for about five hours. Roughly 550 Red Sticks were killed on
the field, while many of the rest were killed trying to cross the river.
Future United States Senator John Eaton wrote "This battle gave a death blow
to [the enemy's] hopes, nor did they venture, afterwards, to make a stand...
In this action, the best and bravest of their warriors were destroyed".
Chief Menawa was severely wounded but survived and led only about 200 of the
original 1,000 warriors across the river and into safety among the Seminole
tribe in Spanish Florida.
On August 9, 1814, Andrew Jackson forced the Creeks to sign the Treaty of
Fort Jackson. Despite protest of the Creek chiefs who had fought alongside
Jackson, the Creek Nation ceded 23 million acres (93,000 km˛)—half of
Alabama and part of southern Georgia—to the United States government. Even
though the Creek War was largely a civil war between the Creeks, Andrew
Jackson saw no difference between the Creeks that had fought with him and
the Red Sticks that fought against him. Of the 23 million acres (93,000 km˛)
Jackson forced the Creeks to cede, 1.9 million acres (7,700 km˛) was claimed
by the Cherokee Nation who had allied with the United States. After
becoming President, Jackson took the land ceded to his former allies, the
Cherokees, together with other Cherokee lands in his removal of the
Cherokees to the Oklahoma Territory. Chief Junaluska, the Cherokee Chief who
saved the life of Jackson in Battle and who led 500 Cherokees in support of
Jackson at Horseshoe Bend, stated that "If I had known that Jackson would
drive us from our homes, I would have killed him at Horseshoe".
This victory, along with the Battle of New Orleans, gave Andrew Jackson the
popularity to win election as President of the United States in
The battlefield is preserved in the Horseshoe Bend National Military Park.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend is the initial point of divergence in the Trail
of Glory series of alternate history novels by author Eric Flint. In Flint's
altered timeline, Houston is only lightly wounded in the battle. He is then
breveted to captain by Jackson and sent to Washington to help negotiate a
peaceful settlement between the United States and the Cherokees, Creeks and
other southern tribes. He arrives in Washington shortly after the Battle of
Bladensburg and rallies defeated US troops and organizes black teamsters
into an ad-hoc artillery force to successfully defend the Capitol building,
preventing the burning of Washington.
1.^ a b Borneman p.151
2.^ a b Robert Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire,
1767-1821 (1977) ch. 13
3.^ Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821 ch.
4.^ Heidler, p. 135
5.^ Ehle p. 123
"Creek War" in Heidler, David Stephen and Heidler, Jeanne T. Encyclopedia of
the War of 1812, Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, 1997. ISBN 9780874369687
Borneman, Walter R. Borneman (2004). 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. New
York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 9780060531126.
Robert Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821
(1977) ch. 13
Steve Rajtar, "Indian War Sites" (McFarland and Company, Inc., 1999)
John Ehle, Trail of Tears The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation (Anchor
Books Editions 1989), pg 117-121 ISBN 0-385-23954-8
Andrew Burstein The Passions of Andrew Jackson (Alfred A. Knopf 2003), p.
105-106 ISBN 0-375-71404-9
 External links
See The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures for a lesson about
the Battle of Horseshoe Bend from the National Park Service's Teaching with
A map of Creek War Battle Sites from the PCL Map Collection at the
University of Texas at Austin.
”The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures”, a National Park
Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
Battle Horseshoe Bend article, Encyclopedia of Alabama
Tohopeka, page 79 Googlebooks.com, Publications of the Mississippi
Historical Society, Volume 4
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Horseshoe_Bend
Categories: War of 1812 | 1814 in the United States | Battles of the Creek
War | Native American history of Alabama
Map of Battle of Horseshoe Bend, 1814 Alabama
Battle of Horseshoe Bend, 1814 Alabama, Diarama.
Roster of Soldiers War of 1812, including the Wests
Battle sites, near Horseshoe Bend 1812